Walls make the civilization – they create a sharp distinction between the city and the countryside, between the municipal jurisdiction, law and order and the wilderness where everything is possible. They are not only a defensive architectonic element; they are a political statement indicating that society was able to invest so much money, time and efforts into building them. Consequently, too often historians perceive the construction of urban defences as one of the hallmarks of civilization.


Sometimes walls strike aside attackers, but sometimes they just hide what is preserved inside of them. Instead of intercepting the incoming, they restrain the diffusion of what is...

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Today we realise that city walls do not represent only emergency responses to unstable political circumstances and imminent threat. Moreover, their imposing dimensions and the extraordinary care with...

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