Archaeologists have studied hillforts for the last 140 years. The variability amongst them in terms of their size, form, defensive structures and duration of occupation is immense. They were being constructed all across Europe from the end of the Bronze Age until the end of the Iron Age. Several hillforts were later used again in Late Antiquity and the Medieval period. Although mostly interpreted as a response to immediate military tread to their populations, were the traces of violent military conflicts only rarely documented.